Multi-annual spatial and numeric dynamics of the white-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala in southern Europe: seasonality, density dependence and climatic variability

White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) Science Article 3


A statistical model is developed for the globally threatened white-headed duck during its regional expansion throughout Spain from 1980 to 2000; the model estimates the relative intrinsic, climatic and stochastic effects on population fluctuations and spatial expansion on several time-scales. Facing the current lack of knowledge on the nature and consequences of regulation for waterfowl populations, this type of study seems timely.

PABLO ALMARAZ and JUAN A. AMAT, Journal of Animal Ecology (2004) 73, 1013 -1023

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