Biometrics of Ruffs Philomachus pugnax migrating in spring through southern Belarus with special emphasis on the occurrence of

Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) Science Article 2


In spring, the Ruff Philomachus pugnax passes through European inland sites in large numbers. Birds from eastern and western parts of the breeding range may differ in biometrics, but data on this species in eastern Europe are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the biometrics of Ruffs migrating through southern Belarus in spring. In 2004, 242 birds were sexed by DNA analysis. Three birds sexed as males had female plumage but wing lengths intermediate between females and breeding-plumage males, and were identified as cryptic males or

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