Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) Science Article 2
Three populations of Turnstone were studied. Primarily a series of comparisons were made between the Canadian-Greenland population which winters mainly in western Europe ad the Siberian population which winters partly in southern Africa. There was no long term change in the size of the latter population over the period 1976 to 1989. There is evidence for site fidelity to winter quarters in South Africa. Spring migration takes place through the Mediterranean and autumn migration through the Black and Caspian Seas. There are only small differences in size between the three populations of Turnstones, but marked differences occurred in patterns of change in mass. The Siberian population has no mid-winter fattening in contrast to the Canadian-Greenland population. The annual food consumption by the Siberian birds was slightly less than the Canadian-Greenland birds. The duration of primary moult of 1Y+ Siberian birds was about 45 days longer than that of Canadian-Greenland birds; it started two months later and was less synchronized. Of first-year Siberian birds 32% of the population undergo partial wing moult whereas no first-year Canadian-Greenland birds moult.
Summers R.W., Underhill L.G., Clinning C.F. & Nicoll M., ARDEA 77 (2): 145-168.