Blue-fronted Lorikeet (Charmosyna toxopei)

Blue-fronted Lorikeet

[order] PSITTACIFORMES | [family] Psittacidae | [latin] Charmosyna toxopei | [authority] Siebers, 1930 | [UK] Blue-fronted Lorikeet | [FR] Lori de Buru | [DE] Burolori | [ES] Lori de Buru | [NL] Buru-lori | [copyright picture] Birdlife


Genus Species subspecies Region Range
Charmosyna toxopei AU s Moluccas


The genus Charmosyna comprises 14 species distributed from Buru Island (Indonesia) in the west through Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, Bismark Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Santa Cruz islands and New Caledonia. The red-throated lorikeet in Fiji represents the eastern-most range of this genus. There is little information on most species of Charmosyna, they are notoriously difficult to find and characteristically inhabit mountainous regions with high rainfall. Seven species are in the IUCN Red List (2000). The New Caledonian lorikeet is known only from two specimens collected in 1859 and an observation in 1913 and recent attempts to locate it have failed. The blue-fronted lorikeet C. toxopei is only definitively known from seven specimens collected in the 1920s. Recent attempts to locate it failed and recent sightings are considered uncertain. Reasons for the decline and rarity of Charmosyna lorikeets are cited variously as small populations and restricted range, habitat destruction and degradation, avian malaria, cyclones and invasive species.

Physical charateristics

Slender, forest-dwelling lorikeet. Male predominantly green, yellowish-green on breast. Orange bill and legs, pale blue forecrown. Yellow band across underside of secondaries. Female has reduced blue on crown and stronger band on secondaries. Female Red-breasted Pygmy-parrot Micropsitta bruijnii has short tail and contrastingly pale cheeks and throat. Female Red-flanked Lorikeet C. placentis placentis (probably absent from Buru) has streaked cheeks

wingspan min.: 0 cm wingspan max.: 0 cm
size min.: 16 cm size max.: 17 cm
incubation min.: 0 days incubation max.: 0 days
fledging min.: 0 days fledging max.: 0 days
broods: 0   eggs min.: 0  
      eggs max.: 0  


Australasia : South Moluccas, Charmosyna toxopei is endemic to the island of Buru, South Maluku, Indonesia, where it was known from seven specimens collected in the 1920s, on the west side of Lake Rana.


The original series of specimens was collected between 850 and 1,000 m. There is one aural record from a coconut plantation in the south, at or near sea-level. Recent observations of a Charmosyna species come from plantations, and selectively logged secondary and primary forest around 600 m. Anecdotal information collected from interviews with local people suggest that it is probably a lower montane species, which in some years occurs down to the coastal lowlands. It has been seen in pairs but apparently occurs more commonly in groups of up to 10 individuals.


No data

Feeding habits

Individuals found feeding on nectar and pollen, in trees on apparently level land


This species has not been positively identified for many years despite several surveys of Buru, suggesting that its population is very small, and likely to be decreasing given that its habitat is shrinking in extent and quality. For these reasons it is considered Critically Endangered.
Most forest in the coastal lowland of Buru has now been cleared, and much of the forest in the northern part of the island has been selectively logged or degraded and fragmented by shifting agriculture, such that only a few small patches of primary lowland forest remain. However, gardens on the island still contain many indigenous tree species. In 2010, there was at least one fairly large-scale logging operation on Buru, situated in the lowlands. However, the island’s extensive montane forests remain largely undisturbed. The topography of the Kaplamandan mountain range means that almost all of the montane forest is expected to be inaccessible to loggers. All the original specimens were caught alive using lime, however the species is not kept as a pet, nor apparently is it traded. Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is potentially susceptible to climate change.
Blue-fronted Lorikeet status Critically Endangered


Interviews with local inhabitants suggest that the species moves to the lowlands during the two annual hot seasons, in March-April and August-November

Distribution map

Blue-fronted Lorikeet distribution range map

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