Environmental, genetic and maternal components of immunocompetence of nestling pied flycatchers from a cross-fostering study

Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) Science Article 16


Genetic, environmental and maternal effects can all affect the phenotypic expression of a trait.Through cross-fostering experiments in nesting birds, variation due to genetic and environmentaleffects can be partitioned and identified as being due to nest of origin and nest ofrearing in a two-factor nested analysis of variance

Juan Jose Soler, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 2003, 5: 259-272

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