Krupers Nuthatch (Sitta krueperi)

Krupers Nuthatch

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Sittidae | [latin] Sitta krueperi | [UK] Krupers Nuthatch | [FR] Sittelle naine | [DE] Turkenkleiber | [ES] Trepador de Kruper | [NL] Turkse Boomklever


Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range

Physical charateristics

10% smaller and even more compact than Nuthatch but with proportionately longer bill. Small nuthatch, essentially slaty-blue above and white below, with sharply-patterned head and diagnostic broad reddish-brown chest-band.
Unmistakable; no other west Palearctic Sitta has similar discrete chest band. Flight and behaviour resemble Nuthatch, but more active and agile, reaching outermost twigs and inviting comparison to tit.

Listen to the sound of Krupers Nuthatch

[audio: Nuthatch.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 21 cm wingspan max.: 24 cm
size min.: 12 cm size max.: 13 cm
incubation min.: 14 days incubation max.: 17 days
fledging min.: 16 days fledging max.: 17 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 5  
      eggs max.: 6  


Eurasia : East Greece through Turkey


Confined to coniferous woodlands. Breeds in lower middle latitudes of west Palearctic in warm dry Mediterranean and montane regions, ranging in Turkey up to 2500& puncsp;m but locally down to sea-level.


Eggs are laid from early April to mid-May, up to 4 weeks earlier in coastal areas than at high altitudes. Probably one brood. Nest site is a hole, usually in conifer but can be in deciduous tree if conifers nearby. Excavates own hole or cleans out previous cavity. Nest comprises foundation of fragments of bark, rotten wood, large cone scales, lined with fibrous bark, moss, wool, feathers, hair, and fur.
5-6 eggs are laid and incubated for 14-17 days. Young fledge after 16-19 days.

Feeding habits

Mainly invertebrates in summer; seeds taken mostly autumn and winter. Forages mainly in crowns of trees, especially on branches and twigs, regularly visiting cones to feed on insects and seeds. Also recorded taking flying prey on the wing.


This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to have undergone a moderately rapid decline over the last ten years as a result of the conversion and degradation of its mature coniferous forest habitats.
Sitta krueperi is endemic to Europe, occurring only on the Greek island of Lesbos,
and in parts of Turkey and the Caucasus. Its European breeding population is
relatively large (>80,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although the
species remained stable in Greece during 1990-2000, the key populations in Turkey
and Russia both declined, and the species underwent a moderate decline (>10%)
overall. Consequently, this previously Secure species is now provisionally evaluated
as Declining.
This bird has a very restricted distribution, mainly in Turkey and the Caucasus. It inhabits also the Greek island of Lesbos, where its population is apparently stable and estimated at 50-100 breeding pairs.
Krupers Nuthatch status Near Threatened


Chiefly sedentary; some birds disperse after breeding; some altitudinal movement in winter.

Distribution map

Krupers Nuthatch distribution range map

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