Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi)

Tropical Parula

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Parulidae | [latin] Parula pitiayumi | [UK] Tropical Parula | [FR] Sylvette a joues noires | [DE] Elfen-Waldsanger | [ES] Parula Tropical | [NL] Maskerparulazanger


Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Dendroica pitiayumi
Parula pitiayumi LA widespread, also s Texas
Parula pitiayumi alarum
Parula pitiayumi cirrha
Parula pitiayumi elegans
Parula pitiayumi graysoni
Parula pitiayumi inornata
Parula pitiayumi insularis
Parula pitiayumi melanogenys
Parula pitiayumi nana
Parula pitiayumi nigrilora
Parula pitiayumi pacifica
Parula pitiayumi pitiayumi
Parula pitiayumi pulchra
Parula pitiayumi roraimae
Parula pitiayumi speciosa

Physical charateristics

It is a dull blue above with an olive patch in the middle of the back. The two white wing-bars seem to vary in width between individuals. Below is mostly bright yellow and the crissum is white. The male has a black mask and an ochraceous wash to the chest and throat both of which features are lacking in the female.

Listen to the sound of Tropical Parula

[audio: Parula.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 0 cm wingspan max.: 0 cm
size min.: 10 cm size max.: 11 cm
incubation min.: 12 days incubation max.: 14 days
fledging min.: 0 days fledging max.: 14 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 3  
      eggs max.: 4  


Latin America : widespread, also South Texas


It is found in forest borders, light woodland and scrub and it is often seen with mixed tanager flocks mainly in the canopy.


The Tropical Parula nests in clumps of epiphytes in a tree 5-15 meter above ground. It usually lays two eggs in a lined domed nest. Incubation is 12-14 days, mainly by the female. It is a monogamous, solitary nester.

Feeding habits

These birds feed on insects, spiders and occasionally berries.


This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The Tropical Parula is distributed in most of Central America and into South America as far south as Uruguay and northern Argentina but is absent from most of the Amazon Basin.
Tropical Parula status Least Concern


Sedentary throughout range

Distribution map

Tropical Parula distribution range map

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