Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis)

Canada Warbler

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Parulidae | [latin] Wilsonia canadensis | [UK] Canada Warbler | [FR] Sylvette du Canada | [DE] Kanada-Waldsanger | [ES] Reinita Canadiense | [NL] Canadese Zanger


Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Cardellina canadensis
Wilsonia canadensis NA n, ne, ec Panama to n SA

Physical charateristics

The “necklaced” warbler. Male: Solid gray above; bright yellow below, with necklace of short black stripes. Female and immature:
Similar; necklace fainter or lacking. All have yellow “spectacles.” In any plumage, gray color above, combined with lack of white in wings and tail, is conclusive.

Listen to the sound of Canada Warbler

[audio: Warbler.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 17 cm wingspan max.: 21 cm
size min.: 12 cm size max.: 14 cm
incubation min.: 11 days incubation max.: 12 days
fledging min.: 10 days fledging max.: 11 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 3  
      eggs max.: 6  


North America : North, Northeast, Eastcentral


Forest undergrowth, shady thickets. Breeds in mature mixed hardwoods of extensive forests and streamside thickets. Prefers
to nest in moist habitat: in luxuriant undergrowth, near swamps, on stream banks, in rhododendron thickets, in deep, rocky ravines and in moist deciduous second-growth. Winters in a variety of habitats in South America, from forest undergrowth to scrub.


Details of the breeding behavior not well known. Males arrive on breeding grounds during the first two weeks of May. Sometimes pairs may arrive together, as migrants have been seen traveling in pairs in Central America.
Placed on or within 6″ of the ground, on sphagnum hummocks, in hollows in streambanks, on moss-covered logs, or in cavities among the upturned roots of fallen trees. Nest (built by female) is bulky open cup, loosely constructed of dead leaves or leaf ske
letons, bark strips, grasses, weeds, ferns; lined with fern roots, horsehair, and plant fibers.
Eggs: 4, sometimes 3-5. Creamy white with brown spots. Incubation is probably by female, possibly with help from male; length of incubation period not well known.
Young: Both parents care for nestlings. Age at which young leave the nest not well known.

Feeding habits

Largely insects. Feeds on many kinds of insects, including beetles, mosquitoes, flies, moths, and smooth caterpillars such as cankerworms; also spiders.
Behavior: Very active in foraging, does more flycatching than most warblers. Typically f
lushes insects from foliage while foraging among twigs and leaves, then darts out to catch escaping insects on the wing. Also searches on the ground among fallen leaves. In winter in the tropics, forages in mixed flocks with other birds, usually 3-
30′ above ground in denser foliage.


This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Canada Warbler status Least Concern


Canada, eastern United States. Winters Panama to eastern Peru. Migration:
Migrates late in spring and early in fall; peak passage in many areas during May and August. In spring, most apparently move north through Central America and Mexico, then around west side of Gulf of Mexico rather than flying across it.

Distribution map

Canada Warbler distribution range map

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