Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)

Orchard Oriole

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Icteridae | [latin] Icterus spurius | [UK] Orchard Oriole | [FR] Oriole des vergers | [DE] Gartentrupial | [ES] Bolsero castano | [NL] Tuintroepiaal


Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Icterus spurius NA, MA se Canada to c Mexico
Icterus spurius phillipsi
Icterus spurius spurius

Physical charateristics

Male: An all-dark oriole. Rump and underparts deep chestnut, rest of bird black. Female, young: Olive green above, yellowish below; two white wing bars.
b Immature male: Dull greenish above, yellowish below, with a black bib down to chest.

Listen to the sound of Orchard Oriole

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/O/Orchard Oriole.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 23 cm wingspan max.: 27 cm
size min.: 15 cm size max.: 18 cm
incubation min.: 12 days incubation max.: 14 days
fledging min.: 11 days fledging max.: 14 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 2  
      eggs max.: 7  


North America, Middle America : Southeast Canada to Central Mexico


Wood edges, orchards, shade trees. Breeds in semi-open habitats with deciduous trees and open space, including riverside trees, orchards, suburbs, forest edges and clearings, prairie gr
oves. Usually avoids unbroken forest. Winters in brushy areas and woodland edges in lowlands of the tropics.


Male sings in spring to attract a mate. Often not strongly territorial; in some cases, more than one pair may nest in the same tree.
Nest: Site is in tree or tall shrub, rarely in tall dense marsh growth. Often 10-20′ above ground, can be much lower or higher (3-
70′ up); typically placed in fork of horizontal branch, sometimes in clump of Spanish moss. Nest (built by female, possibly with help from male) is hanging
pouch, not as deep as some oriole nests, woven of grass and plant fibers, lined with fine grass and plant down.
Eggs: 4-5, sometimes 3-7. Pale bluish white, blotched with brown, gray, purple. Incubation is probably mostly or entirely by the female, about 12-15 days.
Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 11-14 days after hatching, may remain with one or both parents for several weeks. 1 brood per year.

Feeding habits

Mostly insects, some berries and nectar.
Diet in summer is mostly insects, especially caterpillars, beetles, and grasshoppers, plus many others, also spiders. Eats some berries, perhaps more in fall and winter. Often feeds on nectar, and may eat parts of flowers.
Behavior: Forages mostly by searching for insects among the foliage of trees and bushes. Regularly visits flowers, probing in the blossoms with its bill. In winter in the tropics, often forages in flocks.


This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Orchard Oriole status Least Concern


Southeastern Canada, eastern and central United States to central Mexico. Winters from Sinaloa to Venezuela. Migration:
Migrates in flocks; many move north across the Gulf of Mexico in spring. Fall migration begins very early, with some southbound by late July.

Distribution map

Orchard Oriole distribution range map

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