Epaulet Oriole (Icterus cayanensis)

Epaulet Oriole

[order] Passeriformes | [family] Icteridae | [latin] Icterus cayanensis | [UK] Epaulet Oriole | [FR] Oriole a epaulettes | [DE] Epaulettentrupial | [ES] Turpial de Charretera | [IT] Oriolo della Cayenna | [NL] Roodboegtroepiaal


Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Icterus cayanensis SA n, c
Icterus cayanensis cayanensis
Icterus cayanensis chrysocephalus

Physical charateristics

In adult males the bill is pointed without any curve and the eyes are dark brown to dark reddish brown. Below the eye is slightly grey and the wing linings are black. The back is also all black, lacking any indication of a pattern. Female epaulet orioles closely resemble males. Juvenile birds resemble adults but their colors are more muted. THe Suiriname species has have yellow on the shoulders and black running along the tip of the yellow wing lining.

Listen to the sound of Epaulet Oriole

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/E/Epaulet Oriole.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 0 cm wingspan max.: 0 cm
size min.: 21 cm size max.: 22 cm
incubation min.: 0 days incubation max.: 0 days
fledging min.: 15 days fledging max.: 20 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 2  
      eggs max.: 3  


It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Uruguay. The Epaulet Oriole is found from the Guianas, through Brazil mostly south of the Amazon, in eastern Peru, north and east Bolivia, and down to central Argentina.


Epaulet orioles generally can be found in edge and open forests, as well as woodlands. They have been observed in open forests, forest borders, savannas, palm savanna, deciduous woodlands, gallery forest, urban gardens, cerrado woodlands, chaco woodlands, and clearings. They also inhabit both humid and dry areas of their habitat. They prefer open woodlands with sandy ground in Surinam, and frequent the dense forests of the Andean foothills in Bolivia.


It usually lives alone, in pairs and occasionally in flocks. It builds a broad, shallow and fragile nest with wide and dry twigs whose colors make it stand out. One brood per year is typical, although multiple broods may be attempted. Young are likely to fledge 10 to 20 days after hatching and sexual maturity is probably achieved in the year after hatching.

Feeding habits

They eat insects as well as fruit and nectar and they typically forage around the top to middle areas of trees.


This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 10,400,000 km2. The global population size has not been quantified, but it is believed to be large as the species is described as ‘fairly common’ in at least parts of its range (Stotz et al. 1996). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Epaulet Oriole status Least Concern


Sedentary throughout range.

Distribution map

Epaulet Oriole range map


Title EXPLOITATION OF Erythrina dominguezii Hassl. (Fabaceae)
Author(s): RAGUSA-NETTO, J.
Abstract: Among the vertebrate pollinated plants, the genus ..[more]..
Source: Braz. J. Biol., 62(4B): 877-883, 2002

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