Plumbeous Ibis (Threskiornis caerulescens)

Plumbeous Ibis

[order] CICONIIFORMES | [family] Threskiornithidae | [latin] Threskiornis caerulescens | [authority] Vieillot, 1817 | [UK] Plumbeous Ibis | [FR] Ibis plombe | [DE] Stirnband-Ibis | [ES] Bandurria Mora | [NL] Grijze Ibis


Genus Species subspecies Region Range
Theristicus caerulescens SA c, s


Threskiornis is a genus of , wading birds of the family Threskiornithidae. They occur in the warmer parts of the Old World in southern Asia, Australasia and sub-Saharan Africa. They are colonial breeders, which build a stick nest in a tree or bush and lay 2-4 eggs. They occur in marshy wetlands and feed on various fish, frogs, crustaceans and insects. Adult Threskiornis ibises are typically 75cm long and have white body plumage. The bald head, neck and legs are black. The bill is thick and curved. Sexes are similar, but juveniles have whiter necks duller plumage. The Straw-necked Ibis differs from the other species in having dark upperparts, and is some times placed in the separate genus Carphibis (Jameson, 1835)as Carphibis spinicollis.

Physical charateristics

Adults are uniform dark blue-gray, with a bushy crest, a white forehead, red legs, a reddish eye, and a long, decurved gray bill.

Listen to the sound of Plumbeous Ibis

[audio: Ibis.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 0 cm wingspan max.: 0 cm
size min.: 71 cm size max.: 76 cm
incubation min.: 25 days incubation max.: 29 days
fledging min.: 0 days fledging max.: 0 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 2  
      eggs max.: 3  


South America : Central, South. The Plumbeous Ibis is found in Bolivia and C Brazil to Paraguay, N Argentina and Uruguay.


The Plumbeous Ibis frequents lagoons, dams and seasonally flooded areas, ricefields, ponds and marshes. This bird is an open country species, found in pastures, grassland and savannah. It can be seen up to 600 metres of elevation. During the breeding season, the Plumbeous Ibis nests in large trees close to the water.


The nest is placed in tree, between 8 and 25 metres above the ground. The nest-site is located in vegetation along water. The nest is a platform made with twigs and plant matter associated with mud and dung. The cup is lined with grass and leaves. The female builds the nest with materials brought by the male. This species is usually solitary nester. Female lays 2-3 creamy-white eggs with darker markings. Incubation lasts about 28 days, shared by both adults, but mainly by female. The chicks are semi-altricial. They have straight bill which curves as the chick grows. They are fed by regurgitation by both parents. The fledging period is unknown.

Feeding habits

The Plumbeous Ibis feeds on insects, apple snails of genus Pomacea and other aquatic molluscs

Video Plumbeous Ibis


copyright: Josep del Hoyo


This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Plumbeous Ibis status Least Concern


The Plumbeous Ibis is probably sedentary in its range, with some wandering movements

Distribution map

Plumbeous Ibis distribution range map

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